Water, Sanitation, Hygiene & Health Projects

Water, Sanitation, Hygiene & Health Projects

Ongoing Activities

Regional Activity

MEA (Multilateral Environment Agreement)


Asia-Pacific Water Forum 

w Asia-Pacific Water Forum is established during the 4th World Water Forum Regional Preparatory Meeting including 47 countries in Asia-Pacific Regions and several agencies in the region to encourage more collaborative efforts on water resources management and to accelerate the process of effective integration of water resources management into the socio-economic development process of the Asian and Pacific region


Southeast Asia Water Utilities Network (SEAWUN)

w The Southeast Asia Water Utilities Network (SEAWUN) is a regional network of water supply and sanitation utilities and national water associations established in August 2002. As of 19 September 2005, the members are composed of water associations, government bodies and private sectors from Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam, Lao PDR, Singapore.


The Mekong River Commission

w The Mekong River Commission (MRC) was established on 5 April 1995 by the Agreement on the Cooperation for the Sustainable Development of the Mekong River Basin. Areas of cooperation include sustainable development, utilization, management and conservation of the water and related resources of the Mekong River Basin, such as navigation, flood control, fisheries, agriculture, hydropower and environmental protection. The MRC member countries are Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Thailand, and Viet Nam. MRC maintains regular dialogue with the People's Republic of China and Myanmar which are the two upper states of the Mekong River Basin


Network of Asian River Basin Organizations (NARBO)

w The Network of Asian River Basin Organizations (NARBO) was formed to assist river basin organizations (RBOs) introduce and operationalize an integrated water resources management (IWRM), established on 20 November 2003. Sixty five organizations have already joined as members of NARBO including river basin organizations, national and federal/ provincial/local governmental organizations, regional and inter-regional knowledge partners and bilateral and multilateral development cooperation agencies


ASEAN Cooperation on Environment

w ASEAN recognizes the synergistic benefits in addressing common environmental problems on a regional basis and has since 1977 developed a series of ASEAN Sub-regional Environmental Programmes (ASEP I, II, and III), followed by the Strategic Plan of Action on the Environment, 1999-2004 (SPAE).




ESCAP's Pro-poor Water and Sanitation in Small Towns project

w ESCAP performed the projects to assist local governments, civil society organizations and community based organizations introduce pro-poor water and waste water management systems in their towns.

w The project builds on the work of the numerous national and international agencies responsible for water and sanitation in Asia and the Pacific. It facilitates knowledge exchange across the region on policies and practices that can extend water and sanitation services for poor citizens 14 projects in 7 countries in Asia (Viet Nam, Philippines, Lao PDR, and Indonesia etc.)


ECO-Asia Pilot Activities

w ECO-Asia launched the Pilot Project in cooperation with cities and communities to innovate sanitation solutions that leverage local funds and expertise. Marikina city, San Fernando city in Philippines, Halong city in Vietnam are working with ECO-Asia in construction of a low-cost waste water treatment system


WASH project in South East Asia and the Pacific region

w Regional projects run by UNICEF, working on Water and Sanitation and Hygiene in the countries: Cambodia, China, DPR Korea, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Myanmar, Pacific Islands, Philippines, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Viet Nam


Groundwork for a water and sanitation project

w This will help improve the health and lives of about 200,000 people living in nine towns in Cambodia, the Lao PDR, and Viet Nam and supported by ADB


UNICEF Arsenic Prevention and Mitigation Project

w The project will continue arsenic testing and mapping of water supply and raising community awareness of the dangers of arsenic in drinking water in Burma, Cambodia, Lao PDR and Vietnam.


WHO country co-operation strategy (2001-2005)

w WHO representative office in Mongolia conducted the programme including Environmental health and health promotion under the support of WHO and it worked on several topics including water supply support with the UNDP project WASH21 and water safety testing and monitoring, focusing on Mongolia.[i]


Asia Water Watch 2015

w It aims at sustainable access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation and it published assessment report by ADB, UNDP, UNESCAP, WHO.[ii]


Conference/ Information/ Workshops


Training of Trainers (TOT) Workshops on Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) for South-East Asia

w This workshop was to support implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and it was held on 9-14 July 2007 under Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of Malaysia, the National Hydraulic Research Institute of Malaysia (NAHRIM) and the UNDP Cap-Net Programme in cooperation with UNESCAP, UNEP-UCC, ADB, FAO


Regional Workshop on Institutional Changes Required to Achieve the MDG on Sanitation In World Toilet Summit & Expo 2008

w This workshop was to highlight good practices and lessons learned from ESCAP member countries on the improvement of sanitation and promote consensus on priority issues to achieve the MDG on sanitation and it was held on 4-6 November 2008 in Macao, China under UNESCAP and in collaboration with WHO, UNICEF, UNHABITAT, World Bank, ADB, World Toilet Organization


Asian Development Bank (ADB) Water Knowledge Center

w It serves as the reservoir of ADB knowledge products on water and related issues across the Asia-Pacific. Articles, statistics, multi-media products are available.


South East Asia sub Regional Meeting for the 4th World Water Forum

w This meeting was held on 3, September, 2005 in Bali, Indonesia with Indonesia, Malaysia, Laos, China, Thailand etc water partnership representatives and It dealt the topic. i.e. water for growth and development, implementing integrated water resources management, water supply and sanitation for all, water management for food and the environment and risk management.[iii]


East Asia Ministerial Conference on Sanitation and Hygiene 2007 (EASAN 2007)

w As for the outcome of this conference is to identify sanitation and hygiene as primary requirements for poverty reduction and economic growth;  Recognizes that levels of investment and political attention are not commensurate with the scale of the challenge; and commits the EASAN countries to strive for UNIVERSAL SANITATION going far beyond the MDG targets.

w 15 countries gathered; China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Mongolia, Timor-Leste, the Philippines and Vietnam, Brunei Darussalam, Japan, Malaysia, Korea (ROK), Singapore and Thailand and supported by SIDA, ADB, DflD, AusAID, EcoAsia etc. 


International Activity

MEA (Multilateral Environment Agreement)


Ramsar Convention

w Convention on Wetlands (since 1971) to enhance the international cooperation and national action for conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources and currently Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea (ROK), Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam in regional charter.


Convention on Biodiversity (CBD)

w Convention for the conservation of biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources and currently Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea (ROK), Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam in regional charter.


Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD)

w  Convention to tackle desertification established after United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992. Currently Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea (ROK), Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam are parties among the regional charter countries. 


UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)

w Convention to consider what can be done to reduce global warming and to cope with whatever temperature increases are inevitable and currently Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea (ROK), Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam in regional charter. Its COP 14 was held in Poznan, Poland.


OECD ODA for water and Sanitation

w Stats of Official Development Assistance (ODA) for water supply and sanitation from 2001~ 2006 and accordingly China, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia were major recipients.




World Water Day

w  International World Water Day is held annually on 22 March as a means of focusing attention on the importance of freshwater and advocating for the sustainable management of freshwater resources. An international day to celebrate freshwater was recommended at the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). The United Nations General Assembly responded by designating 22 March 1993 as the first World Water Day.


World Water Week

w  The World Water Week in Stockholm has been the annual focal point for the planet's water issues since 1991. The Week provides a unique forum for the exchange of views and experiences between the scientific, business, policy and civic communities.


World Toilet Organization (WTO)

w WTO is dedicated to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) to reduce by half the number of people without access to basic sanitation by 2015 with diverse backgrounds such as NGOs, local and national governments, community based organizations, academe, sanitation professionals, experts, trainers, engineers, development professionals and UN agencies


Conference/ Information/ Workshops


Joint Monitoring Programme for water supply & sanitation

w This information center webpage was developed in collaboration with WHO and UNICEF and the purpose of JMP is to report on the status of water-supply and sanitation, monitor and provide regional, international data, statistics etc.


Jeju initiative

w  UNEP Governing Council/Global Ministerial Environment Forum from 29~31, March, 2004 and the meeting, which had 1200 participants, including government representatives from 158 countries, focused on a discussion of the issues faced by international society related to water, and the 'Jeju Initiative' was the result of these discussions.

w The Jeju Initiative, a 31-point action plan that is based on each nation's experiences and cases and aims to fulfill the implementation objectives that were adopted at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in September 2002 including 11 items concerning Integrated Management of Water Resources, 9 items of Water and Hygiene and 11 items of Water and Poverty.[iv]


United Nations Secretary-General's Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation (UNSGAB)

w  This board is pursuing the MDGs "to halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation" and to give advice to UN secretary General. This programme organized Asian Regional Dialogues, the latest one is on 31, May, 2007 in Shanghai where Asian Ministers and other key participants of the region were invited. 


National Activity



Brunei Darussalam



w Institutional structure

-            Water Resources Management Working Group

-            Department of Environment, Parks and Recreation: 

w Laws, Legislation and Policies

-            As of country's 8th National Development Plan, provision of adequate treated water supply to the whole population remains the main priority of national development. Industrial and agricultural effluents threaten the quality of river water. To minimize this threat, the enhancement and expansion of sewerage services, wastewater treatment processes and disposal facilities. Pollution in the Brunei River is caused by direct disposal of solid waste and effluents. Appropriate measures will be taken in the 8th NDP to ensure that these rivers remain clean.

-            Setting up the Water Quality Standards

w None of the laws of Brunei Darussalam on water quality and pollution specifically addresses the protection of water quality. Further, legally enforceable discharge standards are yet to be made under these laws. Currently, internationally accepted standards are used as references e.g. WHO and ASEAN member countries. Recommendations have been made for effluent/discharge standards which need to be reviewed together with classification of waters based on present and future uses.


w Laws, Legislation and Policies[v]

-            Rural Water Supply and Sanitation (Feb. 27, 2001) focuses on the services of rural water supply and sanitation without any harmful to the environment and public health, based on sustained financially, socially and institutionally, technically, and environmentally. (Policy framework)

-            National Policy on Water Supply and Sanitation (Feb. 07, 2003) focuses on selecting the options of sanitation technologies that contribute to protect and conserve water and its resources.

-            National Water Resource Policy (16 Jan. 2004)

-            Drinking Water Standard (2004) aims at identifying acceptable parameters in drinking water samples must be met the standard in order to ensure a good quality as living demands.

-            The programme of environmental pollution control/monitor aims at identifying water quality in these water bodies for human consumption and appropriate living condition for aquatic lives.

-            Routine control/monitoring programme at pollution sources to ensure the richness of water environment throughout the country without any pollution. Two programmes are being conducted: (i) 45 days – for special factories and (ii) 90 days – for normal factories, including garment factories. Licensing will be provided to factory owners who treated their effluents in complying with the National effluent standard.

w Master Plan for the Greater Phnom Penh Water Supply (Phase II) from Nov. 2004 – Mar. 2006 as JICA initiatives.[vi]

w UNFCCC adaptation plan has Community and Household Water Supply in Coastal Provinces (1,000,000 USD$), Safer Water Supply for Rural Communities (5,000,000 USD$) and Provision of Safe Water in High Risk Malaria Regions (100,000 USD$).[vii]  

w Second Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project: it aims to support the Government's overall strategy for rural development and poverty reduction as well as contribute to the achievement of the Cambodian Millennium Development Goals (CMDGs).[viii]


w  Laws, Legislation and Policies

-            Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Water Pollution (May, 1984)

-            Circular of the State Council on Urban Water Supply, Saving Water and Water Pollution Control

-            Circular on Strengthening the Collection of the Sewage Treatment Fee and Establishing a Sound Operational Mechanism for Urban Sewage Discharge and Centralized Treatment

-            Circular on Issues Concerning Experimental Collecting of Urban Sewage Treatment Fee in the Huaihe River Valley

-            Implementing Rules on the Law on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution (Decree No. 284 of the State Council , Mar.20, 2000)

-            Interim Regulations on the Prevention of Water Pollution in the Huai River Valley (Promulgated by Decree No.183 of the State Council, Aug. 8, 1995)

-            Provisions on the Administration of the Prevention and Control of Pollution in Protected Areas for Drinking Water Sources (July 10, 1989)

-            Measures on the Supervision of Sewage Treatment Facilities for Environmental Protection (May 9, 1988)

-            Interim Measures on the Management of Water Pollutants Discharge Permit (Mar. 20, 1988)

w Songhua River Basin Water Pollution Control and Management Project: This project is expected to improve health and quality of life for about 9.4 million urban residents and supported by ADB.[ix] 


w Clean Water Supply at Aik Bukak, Central Lombok, NTB under the Department of Housing and Regional Development Infrastructure, Central Lombok, in cooperation with UNICEF.[x] 

w Laws, Legislation and Policies[xi]

-            Ministerial Decree No.35/MENLH/7/1995 (1995) Clean River Program

-            Ministerial Decree No.51/MENLH/10/1995 (1995) Effluent Standard for Industry

-            Ministerial Decree No.52/MENLH/10/1995 (1995) Effluent Standard for Hotel

-            Ministerial Decree No.58/MENLH/10/1995 (1995) Effluent Standard for Hospital

-            Government Regulation No. 82(2001) Water Quality Management and Waste Water Control

w WASPOLA (Water Supply and Sanitation Policy and Action Planning), was established in 1999 which consists of representatives from Ministry of Health, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure (MSRI), Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Home Affairs and the National Development Planning Agency.

w Within MoH, there are two important directories and one of those is Water and Sanitation. Under water and sanitation section, there are five sub-section (a) water quality safety, (b) waste impact safety, (c) food and water hygiene sanitation, (d) sanitation and hygiene behavior, and (e) emergency sanitation.[xii]


w Laws, Legislation and Policies

-            Water Pollution Control Law

-            Law concerning the Regulation of Pumping-up of Groundwater for use in Buildings

-            Law concerning Special Measures for the Conservation of Lake Water Quality

-            Law concerning Special Measures for Conservation of the Environment of the Seto Inland Sea

-            Law for Reparation and Compensation of Damage by Oil Pollution

-            Law concerning Special Measures for Water Quality Conservation at Water Resources Area in Order to Prevent the Specified Difficulties in Water Utilization

Korea (Republic of)

w Institutional Structure

-            On March 2004, MOE established the Environmental Health Policy Division (EHPD). The division is preparing a strategy on the national capacity building on environmental health.

w Laws, Legislation and Policies[xiii]

-            Water Supply Act

-            Water Quality Preservation Act

-            Drinking Water Management Act [xiv]

-            Drinking water quality standard test

-            Total Water Pollution Load Management System

-            Toxic Pollutants Effluent Standard

-            Underground Water Management

-            Water Environment Management Master Plan

-            Environmental Water Quality Standards

-            Individual Sewerage

-            Whole Effluent Toxicity Management System

-            Water supply and waterworks installation (Dec.,1961)

-            management of drinking water act (Jan, 1995)

-            water quality and ecosystem conservation act (Aug, 1990)

-            Act Relating to the Han River Water Quality Improvement & Community Support (Feb. 1999)

w Operation of Water Quality Monitoring Network: Stream monitoring networks, lakes and marshes monitoring networks, and agricultural water monitoring networks consist of 1,476 points.


w Institutional Structure

-            The Water Resources Coordination Committee (WRCC) was established in 1999 to improve water resources management. Its main responsibilities are to formulate and implement water resource policy, including management of water allocations. The WRCC consists of management representatives from STEA, MAF, MEM, MCTPC, MoH and LNMC.

-            Lao National Mekong Committee Secretariat formulates policy, strategic plans, projects and programs related to water resources development in the Mekong Basin. It also works to ensure development cooperation with other Mekong riparian countries, other countries and donors.

-            Other NGOs: the Lao Trade Union Federation (LTUF), Lao Women's Union (LWU), and the Lao Youth Organization (LYO). The Lao Front for National Reconstruction (LFNR) is a Civil Society

-            Water Resources and Environment Agency is legally required to implement environmental management and monitoring activities but does not currently implement any environmental monitoring due to budgetary constraints.[xv]

w Laws, Legislation and Policies[xvi]

-            Water and water resources law (Law 126, 1996)

-            The environmental protection law (1999) based on its own environment impact assessment and ministry of public health responsible for rural water supply and sanitation, and environmental health issues.


w Laws, Legislation and Policies[xvii]

-            Environmental Quality (Sewage And Industrial Effluents) Regulations 1979 - P.U. (A) 12/79

-            Environmental Quality (Prohibition On The Use of Controlled Substance in Soap, Synthetic Detergent And Other Cleaning Agents) Order 1995 - P.U.(A) 115/95


w Institutional Structure

-            The Health Inspection Department of the State Professional Inspection Agency (SPIA) is responsible for environmental health control and monitoring in the country. It controls drinking water quality, hygienic condition of water supply and sanitation utilities.[xviii]

w Laws, Legislation and Policies

-            The Law of Mongolia on Sanitation, 1998

-            The law on Water, 1995, 2004

-            The law on urban water supply and sanitation, 2002


w Institutional Structure

-            Under the department of health, there is environmental sanitation division which is responsible for water supply systems for health and institutions such as dispensaries, rural health centers, station hospitals and schools. It is also in charge of rural sanitation for community as well as health and educational institutions.[xix]

w Laws, Legislation and Policies[xx]

-            The Environmental health programme in Myanmar is one of the program in the national health policy (1993) and this is integrated into the National Health Plan (2000 ~2006) – Environmental health programme consists of 5 projects and among them, Community Water Supply and Sanitation and Air and Water Pollution Control.


w  Laws, Legislation and Policies[xxi]

-            Revised water Usage and Classification/water Quality Criteria Amending Section No. 68 and 69, Chapter III of the 1978 NPCC Rules and Regulations (DAO 1990-34)

-            Water Quality Variance for Geothermal Exploration (DMC 2000-03)

-            Prescribing the Operational and Fund Management Guidelines for the Implementation of Phase IV of the water Resources Development Project-watershed Management Improvement Component (WRDP-WMIC) (DMC 2000-22)

-            Guidelines for Delineating/ Delimiting Municipal waters (DAO 2001-17)

-            Institutionalizing the Integrated water Resources Management (IWRM) in DENR Programs and Projects (DAO 2001-29)

-            Clarification on the form of Cyanide Reffered to in the DENR Administrative Order (DAO No 34): Revised water Usage and Classification/ water Quality Criteria and the DENR Administrative Order No. 35: Revised Effluent Standard of 1990. (DMC 2004-10)

-            Compliance of All Wastewater Dischargers to Upgraded and Reclassified waterbodies (DMC 2004-11)

-            Implementing Rules and Regulations of the Philippine Clean water Act of 2004 (Republic Act No. 9275) (DAO 2005-10)

-            Adoption of Implementation of Collaborative Approach to watershed Management (DAO 2005-23)

-            Amendment of Special Order No. 851, Series of 2005, Reorganization of the Project Management Structure and Creation of the Technical Working Group on JICA-DENR Capacity Development Project on water Quality Management (SO 2006-830)


w  Laws, Legislation and Policies

-            Environmental Protection and Management (Trade Effluent) Regulations, Reg 5

-            Environmental Public Health (Quality of Piped Drinking Water) Regulations 2008


w  Thai water quality standards are divided into 6 categories; drinking water standards, effluent standards, surface water standards, coastal water standards, groundwater quality standards, water quality for freshwater animal.[xxii]


w  Orientation toward developing urban water supply to the year 2020[xxiii]

w Laws, Legislation and Policies[xxiv]

-            Law on Water Resources

-            Viet Nam Standards, Water Quality - Surface Water Quality Standard, TCVN 5942 - 1995

-            Viet Nam Standards, Water Quality - Coastal Water Quality Standard, TCVN 5943 - 1995

-            Viet Nam Standards, Water Quality - Ground Water Quality Standard, TCVN 5944 - 1995

-            Viet Nam Standards, Industrial Waste Water - Discharge Standards, TCVN 5945 – 1995

w New Danish support to Vietnam's national target programme ii for rural water supply and sanitation: it is planned during 2006-2010 for promotion of water, sanitation and hygiene.[xxv]




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